Hoteling and Hot desking
There's the wiki description.
There's the real world example of how one organization might implement it:
“Due to current telecommuting policies and arrangements, we have many offices/cubicles that are vacant anywhere from 20% to 100% of the time. Since we are still paying for 100% occupancy, we will be moving to office sharing arrangements where possible. Therefore, we will be participating in the building consolidation as well as our own office consolidation.
Office sharing is an arrangement, whereby two people share an office but who are not in the office on the same day. This arrangement will apply to people who are already telecommuting three or more days per week. In cases where individuals are normally telecommuting 100%, permanent office space will no longer be provided.
Each cubicle will have the current standard size, workspace, cabinets and drawers that exist today in the office area. Occupants will agree on which cabinets or drawers they each will be assigned. A list of the available cabinets and drawers will be provided in advance so occupants can come to agreement before the move.
Each office will have two telephones, one per each occupant with their current phone number.
What happens if someone has to switch his/her telecommuting day?
If both occupants need the office the same day, the individual normally assigned to the office for that day will use the office. The other person will need to find a vacant office (every cube will be vacant one day per week). In addition, other workspaces will be provided. These workspaces include huddle rooms, conference rooms and training rooms. A list of available alternative locations will be provided prior to the move.
And there's Fedland's hot desking, from Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash:
“So there is no paper in a Fed office. All the workstations are the same. You come in in the morning, pick one at random, sit down, and get to work. You could try to favor a particular station, try to sit there every day, but it would get noticed. Generally you pick the unoccupied workstation that's closest to the door. That way, whoever came in earliest sits closest, whoever came in latest is way in the back, for the rest of the day it's obvious at a glance who's on the ball in this office and who is -- as they whisper to each other in the bathrooms -- having problems.